Bifrons (demon)

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Bifrons. An illustration from the “Dictionnaire Infernal” (1863).

Bifrons is a demon described in the demonological grimoires the Lesser Key of Solomon (as the forty-sixth spirit) and the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum (as the forty-seventh spirit), as well as being mentioned in the Dictionnaire Infernal. These works describe Bifrons as an earl who initially appears as a monster before adopting a more human form. His duties include teaching arts and sciences, including astrology, geometry, and the properties of different plants and stones. He also moves bodies into different graves, lights candles over graves, and (depending on the version) commands either 6, 26, or 60 legions of spirits.

The word "bifrons" literally means "two-faced" in Latin, and is also a prominent epithet of the ancient Roman god Janus, which suggests that Bifrons may be a corrupted and demonized form of Janus.[1][2][3] According to Rudd, Bifrons is opposed by the Shemhamphorasch angel Ariel.[4]


  1. ^ Peterson, Joseph H., ed. (May 2001). Lemegeton Clavicula Salomonis: The Lesser Key of Solomon, Detailing the Ceremonial Art of Commanding Spirits Both Good and Evil;. Maine: Weiser Books (published 2001). p. 28. ISBN 1-57863-220-X.
  2. ^ Weyer, Johann (1563). Peterson, Joseph H. (ed.). Pseudomonarchia Daemonum (Liber officiorum spirituum). Twilit Grotto: Esoteric Archives (published 2000). par. 47.
  3. ^ de Plancy, Jacques Collin (1853). Dictionnaire infernal (in French). Paris: Sagnier et Bray. p. 98.
  4. ^ Rudd, Thomas (2010). Skinner, Stephen; Rankine, David (eds.). The Goetia of Dr Rudd. Golden Hoard Press (published 2007). pp. 366–376. ISBN 978-0738723556.